Pakistan raises rate 100 bps but tightening likely finished

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“1. During its meeting on 16th July 2019, the Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) decided to increase the policy rate by 100 bps to 13.25 percent with effect from 17th July 2019. The decision considers upside down pressures from exchange rate depreciation because the last MPC meeting on 20th May 2019 and the likely increase in near future inflation in the one-off effect of recent alterations in utility costs and other measures from the FY20 budget. The decision also takes into account downside inflation pressures out of softening demand signs. Taking these factors under account, the MPC expects average inflation of 11 — 12 percentage in FY20, higher than previously proposed. Yet, inflation is predicted to fall considerably in FY21 as the one-off impact of a few of the reasons for the recent rise in inflation diminishes.
Pakistan’s central bank raised its policy rate for the fourth time this season and the 9th period since January 2018 nevertheless said it had been finished raising prices in reaction to this fall in the rupee during the past 1-1/2 decades and from today rising rates could be set in response to the outlook for inflation.
The State Bank of Pakistan (SBP) increased its policy rate by a further 100 basis points to 13.25 percent and has now raised it by 325 points this year following climbs in January, March and May.
Since January this past year, when SBP started raising its rates, the central bank’s monetary policy committee (MPC) has raised the principal rate of interest with a total of 7.50 percentage points to curtail inflation in the drop at the exchange rate of the rupee, that forced up import rates.
“With this decision on interest rates, the MPC is of the opinion that the adjustment related to interest rates and the exchange rate by previously accumulated loopholes has taken place,” SBP stated.
The rupee was trading at 159.3 to the U.S. dollar todaydown 33.9 percent because December 2017down 13.5 percent as the beginning of this season and 7 percent as the last policy meeting on May 20 when the important rate was raised 150 basis points.
The MPC said now ’s rate increase took into account upside inflationary pressures from exchange rate depreciation because May 20, the most possible growth in near-term inflation in higher utility prices and other budgetary measures for fiscal 2020 obtained in the wake of the arrangement with the International Monetary Fund (IMF), along with drawback pressures on inflation from milder demand.
“Going ahead the MPC is going to be ready to do it depending on economic progress and data outruns,” with abrupt increases in the inflation outlook possibly leading to “further modest trimming,” SBP explained, adding:
By comparison, greater-than-expected softening in domestic demand and consequently a lower inflation prognosis would provide “grounds for easier financial problems. ”
The central bank raised its forecast to average inflation at the 2020 fiscal year, which started July 1, to 11 – 12 per cent, slightly lower than IMF’s prediction of 13.0 per cent, but up from an average of 7.3% in 2018/19 when prices were boosted by the lagged impact of the decrease rupee, government borrowings from the central bank, greater fuel and food rates.
At June Pakistan’s inflation rate eased to 8.9 percent from a 2019-high of 9.41 percent in March and 9.11 percent in May.
In financial 2021 SBP expects inflation to fall “much ” as one-off impacts decrease.
Following a staff-level deal with the IMF in May to a 39-month, US$6.0 billion service package, the IMF board on July 3 accepted the deal, making $1 billion immediately available and releasing another $38 billion from Pakistan’s global partners to support its economic reform.
“A elastic, market-determined exchange rate along with an satisfactorily tight monetary policy will be key to adjusting imbalances, rebuilding reserves, also keeping inflation low,” IMF stated.
Strengthening the central bank’s autonomy and eliminating its financing of the budget deficit can greatly help its lower inflation and improve fiscal stability, IMF added.
Last month Reza Baqir, who took more than SBP governor on May 4, explained the foreign exchange rate policy as a “marketplace based trade system” that follows supply and demand but the central bank could subsequently intervene in the case of volatility.
Under previous authorities, Pakistan had adopted a “strong rupee” coverage and effectively fixed the rupee against the U.S. dollar at a speed that has been too high because of the result that the central bank burned through its reservations to protect the rupee.
As of July 12, SBP’s foreign exchange reserves had risen to US$8.0 billion, partially as a result of IMF’s tranche, and are predicted to grow further as international creditors release funds, such as those linked to the Saudi oil facility, and enhanced existing account.
Pakistan’s economic expansion has been slowing this year and SPB forecast 2019/19 gross domestic product increase of 3.3 percent, well under the government’s target of 6.2 percent.
Growth in the present financial year should improve to around 3.5 percentage as the slowdown turns around in light of improved market sentiment, a rebound in agriculture and administration incentives.

The State Bank of Pakistan published another press release:
With this conclusion on rates of interest, the MPC is of the view that the adjustment related to interest rates and the market rate from previously accumulated imbalances has taken place. Moving ahead the MPC is going to be ready to take action depending on economic progress and information outturns. Unanticipated increases in inflation that adversely influence the inflation outlook may result in additional small tightening. On the other hand, a higher than expected softening in domestic demand and downward revision in projected inflation would offer grounds for easing fiscal problems.

3. In reaching this decision the MPC considered the crucial financial developments since the last MPC meeting on 20th May 2019, improvements in the real, external and fiscal sectors, along with the consequent outlook for monetary inflation and conditions.

Key progress since the last MPC
4. There have been three important improvements since the last MPC meeting. Firstthe Government of Pakistan has passed a FY20 budget that seeks to credibly improve fiscal sustainability by focusing on earnings measures to widen the tax base. Adjustments in utility costs and other steps from the budget are anticipated to result in some one-time substantial increase in costs at the first half of FY20. On the flip side, the government has also dedicated to stop borrowing from the State Bank which could qualitatively enhance the inflation outlook. Secondly, the outlook for outside financing has further strengthened with the disbursement of the first tranche associated with the IMF Extended Fund Facility, manipulation of the Saudi oil facility, and other commitments of support in multilateral and bilateral partners. The current account deficit also has continued to drop suggesting that outside pressures continue to decline. On the flip side, the depreciation in the exchange rate as the last MPC has added to inflationary pressures. Ultimately, on the global front, the sentiment towards emerging markets has significantly enhanced with higher expectations of a coverage rate cut in the United States.

Real sector
5. Domestic demand is estimated to moderate to about 3 percent at FY19 and GDP increase to 3.3 percent. While current high frequency indicators point to a slowing in economic activity, this is expected to turn around in the duration of the year on the rear of increased market sentiments in the context of IMF supported application, a rally in the agriculture industry as well as the slow effect of government incentives such as export- oriented businesses. Conditional upon the latest available information, SBP expect the actual GDP growth of around 3.5 percent in FY20.

External sector
6. Topical conditions reveal continued steady improvement with a considerable decline in the current account deficit which dropped by 29.3% to US$ 12.7 billion in Jul-May FY19 as compared to US$ 17.9 billion during exactly the same period last year. This improvement was mainly driven by import compression and wholesome expansion in workers’ remittances.  Export volumes are growing despite export values have remained subdued because of a fall in unit costs as also experienced by rival exporting nations. Future improvements in export operation will also be based on growth rates of our trading partners and advancement in relieving nationally structural impediments.

7.  Reserves are predicted to rise further in FY20 on account of further fiscal inflows from other foreign creditors including those associated with the Saudi oil facility and continuing improvement in current account deficit. The bulk of the needed adjustment in the real effective exchange rate to address the past overhang of overvaluation was finished with the latest deprecation of their exchange rate. Though the exchange rate is flexible and promote decided the SBP stands ready to take action to deal with disorderly market conditions in the foreign exchange industry. Directed by considerable shortfall in revenue collection, greater than budgeted interest rates and safety related expenditures, both the overall financial and primary deficits deteriorated in FY19. The FY20 budget attempts to credibly undo the recent trend of fiscal deterioration by fixing long-standing weaknesses in the tax system and to boost documentation of financial activities. On the rear of an ambitious goal for tax collection and tight control on expenditures, the budget envisaged a sizable reduction in primary shortage. This financial consolidation would support SBP’s paychecks policies already in place. From a fiscal policy perspective, the government’s strong commitment to finish its borrowing from your SBP, along with the execution of accountability management performance to restructure the outstanding debt followed by SBP, would positively contribute towards fiscal policy transmission whilst credibly anchor economies’inflation expectations going forward. Reflecting the effect of stabilization steps, private sector credit (PSC) expansion has started to decelerate. PSC expanded 11.4 percent throughout 1st Jul – 28th Jun FY19 compared to 14.8 percent during exactly the same period last year. The deceleration in credit was more conspicuous in real terms as the increase in PSC was mostly driven by higher input prices, which subsequently increased the working capital demands of those companies. This, together with higher budgetary borrowing led to a sharp gain in the net domestic assets (NDA) of the banking system. In aggregate, broad money supply (M2) grew by 12.2 percentage during 1st Jul — 28th Jun FY19 compared to 10% during the corresponding period last year. Going forward, the composition of money supply is predicted to change as NFA of the banking system is projected to increase, while the growth in NDA is likely to show significant moderation. Inflation rose substantially to 7.3% in FY19 because of high government borrowing from SBP, lagged impact of exchange rate depreciations, hike in domestic fuel costs, and increasing food prices. CPI inflation has been 8.9% in June 2019 and is anticipated to increase in the near term due to the one-off effect of adjustment in utilities costs and other measures in the FY2020 budget. These pressures are expected to float in the next half of the fiscal year along with the MPC expects inflation to moderate 11 — 12 percent in FY20. The MPC is on the opinion that actual interest rates implied by these inflation forecasts and now’s policy rate decision are at acceptable levels considering the cyclical weakening of aggregate demand.

Mexican Exchange Rate Highline

Mexican Exchange Rate is phenomenon felt by all gringos who don’t have a rock solid foundation of Spanish. It works like this: you change your dollars to pesos so that you won’t be charged an unfair exchange rate for using a foreign currency. For this you always pay a fee to whomever you change with whether it’s a cambio, a bank, or an individual. Then, you find that many merchants will tell you a price that is higher than it would for Mexicans because you’re a gringo, even with decent Spanish you can’t always get them to lower the price so you have to pay again. This is possible because in the majority of markets and shops things will not have prices on them and you have to ask how much they cost. Thereby, putting yourself at the mercy of the shopkeeper by whatever degree your poor Spanish accent offends his ears. Thus, the Mexican Exchange Rate. It’s also a 22m highline in Catavina, Baja California Mexico. Rigged and walked in January 2011 by Thomas Sloss and Charlie Long. Shot on Olympus Tough, edited in Videopad.

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Exchange Rate

This lesson explains about exchange rates in the HandWallet Expense Manager app:

When you purchase something in a different currency than the currency of the account HandWallet will automatically download the exchange rates for you and calculate the right amount in your home currency.
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So in the “currency exchange” section you can control how this really works. For example, the exact date used for the currency conversion, the source of the rate or even specify the rate manually.
If the credit card company charge you commission (as they usually do when you purchase abroad) you can use the “discount” section – it is good also for commissions.

Just few more words about “exchange rate sources”. These are usually central banks or known financial organizations like “Yahoo finance” or “Oanda”. HandWallet comes with several build in exchange sources. However you can always add more by pressing the “Data” tab at the top of the screen and then “Financial Data”.

For more information visit the HandWallet Expense Manager site:
or the HandWallet Expense Manager forum:
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These numbers were accurate at the time of filming. Bank fee is an average fee extrapolated based on the combination of fixed fees and variable fees on exchange rates from several top UK banks. The exchange bureau fixed and variable fee is an average of several UK based providers and their disclosed information on their websites.

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Types Of Exchange Rate – Their Terms And Definition

An exchange rate represents the price value of one currency expressed in terms of another.

The cost of Money:

National treaties are vitally important to the way modern economics operate. They allow us to consistently express the value of an item across borders of countries, oceans and cultures. We need these values ​​because one nation's money is not accepted in another. You can not walk into a store in Japan and buy a loaf of bread with Swiss francs. First you have to go to a bank and buy some Japanese yen with your Swiss francs. An exchange rate is simply the cost of one form of currency in another form of currency.

Types of Exchange rates:

Spot Rate

Spot rate is defined as the one which applies to 'on the spot' delivery of currency. In spot transaction the actual exchange of money for goods takes place with minimum possible delay. The spot rate is the value of currency under consideration at that very moment.

Forward Rate

Forward rate is the one applicable to a transaction, which will occur at specified point of time in future. Here, the value is fixed today but the settlement is at some specified date in the future.

Future Rate

The one which applies to future delivery of the currency is known as future rate. Here, the contract is made today. However, the payment is done on some fixed date in the future with the rate-value on that day.

The floating Exchange Rate

The market determinates a floating rate. A currency is worth whatever buyers are willing to pay for it. This is determined by Supply and Demand, which is in turn driven by foreign investment, import / export ratios, inflation and a host of other economic factors. Generally, countries with mature, stable economic markets will use a floating system. Virtually every major nation uses this system, including US, Canada and Great Britain. Floating exchange rates are considered more efficient, because the market will automatically correct the value to reflect inflation and other economic forces.

Pegged Exchange Rate

A pegged, or fixed system, is one in which the value is set and artificially maintained by the government. The rate will be pegged to some other country's dollar, usually the US dollar. The determined value will not fluctuate from day to day.

Hybrid Exchange rates

A few exchange systems are 100% floating, or 11% pegged. Countries using pegged rate can avoid market panics and inflationary disadvantages by using a floating peg. They peg their value to the US dollar, and that unit does not fluctuate from day to day. However, the government periodically reviews their peg, and makes minor adjustment to keep it in line with the true market value.